Category Archives: atlanta places

Atlanta’s Central Library debate


Last night I attended a “Social Studies” talk hosted by the Center for Civic Innovation and Creative Loafing. The discussion and points made went well beyond the simple but helpful Poll Curbed did a few months ago and voices were not raised during the panel discussion. The talk was interesting and enlightening with multiple views: the preservationist/architect-afficionado, the library system itself, the politician with a driving desire to see a long-dreamed-of plan go into action.

THERE IS SO MUCH I WANT TO SAY ABOUT THIS!! but for now I’m going to leave it at a brief recap of what each panelist had to say.

DR. GABRIEL MORLEY: brand new Director of the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System.
Position: Neutral
What he brought to the table: an honest look at the library SYSTEM and where libraries, including this one are going in the future. He’s spent some time thinking about this and working on this in Louisiana. He made a good point that the library will survive and work with whatever buildings they are given. As a public institution whose mission is to provide access to information to the public, the future of the library is beyond the physical building itself. No longer should the MAIN focus of libraries be about bringing people into the building, it should be about making information accessible to the public wherever they are. He even pointed to a program that was beginning this summer in Louisiana where library books could be delivered to you when and where you need them (uberBooks?). He’s all about rethinking and while he stayed clearly neutral on the preservation of this particular building he did say that building big new central libraries at this point in time seems misguided, the buildings themselves, if anything, need to scale back so the focus of the Library can be on making information accessible.

DEAN BAKER: Friends of Central Atlanta Library (FOCAL), preservationist, historian, lover of Atlanta (from what I know)
Position: Save!
What he brought to the table: Dean brought up a lot of great counter-points to former councilman Rob Pitt’s argument. Besides pointing out that Atlanta already has pretty much the most iconic library we could ask for, he has respect, appreciation, and probably genuinely LIKING the blocky concrete Brutalist building. Beyond the architectural perspective, he circled back several times to the rehab what you’ve got vs. demo and new construction options or even rehab vs. new construction elsewhere and put the Breuer (can we call it that now?) to another use. He pretty much made the point that it would be far more economical for the City, the Library system, and beneficial to the community to rehabilitate THIS iconic building rather than building a new Central Library anywhere else.

MELODY HARCLERODE: Architect and Past President of the Atlanta Chapter of the American Institute of Architects
Position: Save the building!
What he brought to the table: Melody made the point that the architecture is beautiful, iconic and worthy of preservation. She loves it architecturally and wants to see it remain. She was clearly open to other uses for the Breuer building or bring additions/change to the building just so long as it retains its original architectural integrity. Preservationist values. She noted that she voted yes on the referendum back in 2008 that is listed below, presumably she understood at the time that that meant building a new central library. I was unclear on how she feels about keeping the Central Library at the Breuer building.

ROB PITTS: former Fulton County Commissioner, also served on the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library Board
Position: New Central Library!
What he brought to the table: It may seem personal but it’s not. The voters have spoken.

thanks to Kyle for posting the bond referendum as it appeared on ballots in 2008!

thanks to Kyle for posting the bond referendum as it appeared on ballots in 2008!

Though he had not before, Mr. Pitts acknowledged that the Breuer building is iconic and architecturally significant, even ‘beautiful’ to some people. He also said point blank that he’s hated that building since it was built (and he remembers that, he’s been in Atlanta politics a long time). So his pushiness for a new library and who-cares-what-happens-to-the-Breuer-building is personal but he’s a politician and knew how to spin it so that we could tell it WASN’T personal. It was all about the voters. As he said repeatedly, the voters voted in 2008 to allocate funds specifically for a new central library, not a rehab, but NEW CONSTRUCTION. He knows politics, he said, and you can’t backtrack when the voters have spoken, the city’s hands are tied. Ok, you CAN backtrack, educate the public on the options again, take it back to the table, back to the ballot box and see if the voters will allow the funds to go toward a rehab or something rather than ONLY new construction, but that is politically dangerous, you do that and voters don’t trust you anymore. I was still skeptical on whether the voters REALLY DID speak specifically for allocating X funds for specifically a brand new library or if it’s something the Commissioners did (and therefore could undo), you can see the ballot measure below. ‘The voters have spoken’ was his primary argument and in fact, this was the ONLY thing he had to stand on to argue for a new central library building.

For this audience member, that all-about-the-voters/public spiel was not enough in the face of all the other evidence.

I suspect the audience was fairly pro-preservation, and even pro-rehabbing and keeping the Central Library here, but maybe there were more current politicians or Library Board members, I would’ve liked to hear from the folks who WORK at the Atlanta Central Library speak to the current pros and cons of the library (iconic architecture aside), I would like to hear more from the people to actually USE (or live near enough to use “if only…”) the Atlanta Central Library and how it could better serve them.

view of the Breuer Central Library from Peachtree St. (exit the south end of Peachtree Center Marta and there you are!) from the Atlanta Preservation Center.

view of the Breuer Central Library from Peachtree St. (exit the south end of Peachtree Center Marta and there you are!) from the Atlanta Preservation Center–there’s actually a lot more windows than you think.

meanwhile, some more reading on this issue:
Creative Loafing: Library system debates downsizing — and iconic Central branch is caught in the middle
Kyle Kessler for CL: Central Library doesn’t need replacing, it needs boosting Future Uncertain for Breuer’s Central Library in Atlanta
Overdue! Metropolis article from 2009, architectural significance and changing libraries
Waiting for the Internet – great images of the interior

this just in from the real journalists: Curbed’s report on last night

“Unpacking” my own Manuel’s Tavern

IMG_9724Mom had never been to Manuel’s Tavern. Or Man-WELL’s as she insisted on pronouncing it, possibly correctly. For the brief period that she and Dad lived in Atlanta she knew of it but never actually went. Dad, a Georgia Tech graduate, was familiar enough with Manuel’s to stop by on his bike on the way home from work on Fridays to pick up a quart of beer (in a milk carton?!) for him and mom to share in their new old house in Candler Park. (I picture them sitting on the front steps watching neighbors pass by or leaning against a wall in a bare room on halfway refinished floors.) It was the 1970s and the 20-year-old Manuel’s was already an acclaimed institution. I can only wonder that Dad never took her there–I guess there was always next time. Nearly 40 years later, Mom confessed this to us when she and P came over for a wedding in November of last year. There wasn’t going to be another “next time” so after the wedding on a cold Saturday night, we got a ride to Manuel’s for a late night beer. It was nearly midnight when we breezed in the back door in our wedding clothes and slipped happily into one of the wooden booths by the bar.

I never lived close enough for Manuel’s to become my own go-to bar, but I have known it since my days in Athens and later living in Atlanta. Squeezing into the packed bar on a weekend night was daunting, finding a spot to sit at Carapace required planning ahead, but there were less crowded weeknight meals of chickens sandwiches or casual gatherings in the Eagle’s Nest. And there was always plenty of beer. To me as to most anyone who went there, Manuel’s, despite the layer of grime that every dive bar has, always exuded a special sense of place that was hard not to respect.

As most everyone knows now, Manuel’s is undergoing renovations and a massive development of the surrounding land- and possibly overhead air-space. They closed on December 27, 2015, but promise to reopen, bolstered for a new generation. Thanks to rather incredible documentary project they say the interior will boast the same finishes, wooden booths, bar and, much to most folks’ skepticism, the same photos and stickers, pennants and memorabilia on the wall in the exact same places. At least, they say they CAN recreate it, I’m not really sure they’ve promised to.

IMG_9716The project to preserve what amounts to a “harbor of memories in an ever-changing city” is being carried out in a [mostly] Georgia State University project called “Unpacking Manuel’s Tavern.” A recent article in GSU magazine goes in-depth on the project, an awesome piece of digital preservation, a collection of histories and memories that anyone will be able to “walk through” and, as they say “unpack.”

So while my own unpacking of Manuel’s will go unrecorded (besides here) if you follow there facebook page you’ll find a few other memories, people are eager to share and I’m sure I’m not alone when I say I’ll be looking forward to the “Unpacking” project’s release as much as to the reopening of Man-WELL’s.

One for the Road, GSU magazine, Q1.16 IMG_9730

a neighborhood re-written

I learned something new about history along the Beltline the other day!

The old Bellwood Quarry property was purchased by the City of Atlanta in 2006 for the future 300 acre Westside Reservoir Park which will connect to the Beltline in its northwest segment. The park will incorporate the abandoned Bellwood Quarry which will serve as a reservoir for Atlanta’s water supply. When filled, the quarry will be deeeeeeeeep (so don’t fall in!) able to contain 30 days-worth of back-up water supply for the city. This is a thorough WABE report on the future Westside Reservoir Park.

WestsidePark-overlay notes

The property (outlined above) appears to be a shoe-in for a park, comprised of great expanses of field and forest besides the quarry itself. But all of that property is not all undeveloped land or at least it wasn’t always. I learned the other day that, in fact, a whole neighborhood had been built, lived in, and demolished–not once, but TWICE–where woods now stand on the northern portion of the future park, enter…


Perry-Rockdale crop Atlanta_Base_Map 1940

The neighborhood of Rockdale Park has disappeared purposely from Atlanta’s maps two times in the 20th century, as Joe Hurley told us in a session of the 2015 Atlanta Studies Symposium. “Rockdale” does appear in the list of Westside neighborhoods on though all that appears today is 21st century development north of the future park. Physical evidence of this area before the turn of the millennium has been all but wiped out. This too is about where the google-able information stops but Mr. Hurley’s tale of urban housing fails picks up.

It started to make sense when I discovered how closely Rockdale Park was linked with one of Atlanta’s infamous housing projects, Perry Homes. In fact, it appears that the original Rockdale Park neighborhood (a grid of streets and early 20th century houses) covered the ground from the Bellwood Quarry north to the railroad line and Inman Yards. In the 1939-40 real estate map of Atlanta above, you can see the neighborhood clearly laid out both north and south of Johnson Road which today (it’s route redrawn a little) makes the northern border of the future Westside Reservoir Park. 1949 aerials of Atlanta clearly show what may have been American small houses, but I’m just guessing. It is likely too that the residents of this neighborhood were mostly blue collar, associated either with the quarrying to the south of or the enormous Inman Yards.

Inman Yard Atlanta, c. 1917, Atlanta History Center

Inman Yard Atlanta, c. 1917, Atlanta History Center

In 1960, the area between the railroad and Proctor Creek was majority African-American (see this “Percent Non-White” map) and was already part of the urban housing–“projects”–experiments going on across mid-century America. In 1959 the first Perry Homes housing project was built just north of Johnson Road, after a fire, the “homes” were rebuilt in the mid-1970s and this so-called “residential brownfield,” “a region [of Atlanta] that for nearly 50 years has been synonymous with crime and violence and blight” (AHA press) was eventually torn down by 2000 when the mixed use development, West Highland, was begun to transform the area. Heck, Marta wouldn’t even go there–although a Perry Homes spur was proposed, the line (now the Edgewood-Bankhead short train) would only be built as far as the Bankhead Highway.

Mr. Hurley showed us that the Rockdale Park neighborhood was razed, and while the northern portion became Perry Homes, the lower portion was never redeveloped to it’s full potential. Some but not all of the proposed buildings of a housing project on the South side of Johnson Road were built, and within short decades, also demolished. Nothing stands there now except the scraped earth of the most recent development, and forest with no trespassing signs shrouding any evidence of the earlier neighborhood called Rockdale Park.

Current googlemap of the northern Westside Reservoir Park overlaying the 1939-40 map of Rockdale Park neighborhood.

Current googlemap of the northern Westside Reservoir Park overlaying the 1939-40 map of Rockdale Park neighborhood.

While Rockdale Park has been mostly forgotten for decades, the creation of the Westside Reservoir Park offers a great opportunity to bring its memory, history, and the lessons of the neighborhood’s demise back into the public consciousness and the story of Atlanta.

Meanwhile, I’m hoping Mr. Hurley will put more on the web soon as his studies progress!

the vintage bathroom

and interpretation at Callanwolde

I LOVE 1920s bathrooms. Those built-in closets, subway tile walls, hex tile floors, the way the sunlight filters across them, those heavy pedestal sinks with their original fixtures and matching round-edged 6-foot bathtubs… sitzbathBut I’d never seen a fixture like this until stepping into one of the original upstairs bathrooms (no longer used) at Callanwolde. Tour guides are not allowed to say it (it would seem that we are not supposed to know that members of a certain elite Atlanta family had ailments like anyone else) but it is a s-i-t-z bath, which basically explains it, it’s a bath for your sits. Also known as a “hip bath” it allows you to soak up to your hips whether you’ve just given birth, have hemorrhoids or other, [unspeakable?] ailments. Personally I think it sounds nice, at least, if you’re not ailing.

Actually, more research reveals that in the 1920s, this high tech bathroom was something of a status symbol. According to an article in Old House Journal:

“before 1910, bathrooms in and of themselves were often status symbols. In an era when houses with running water and waste piping were new and modern, a single bathroom with lavatory, flushing toilet, and fixed tub was a sign of progressive thinking and an essential step in the march toward better hygiene. What’s more, the bathrooms of the wealthy were not so much places of daily cleanup and dressing, but therapeutic laboratories akin to personal spas. The shower we now associate with a daily spritz was frequently a stand-alone cage of multiple sprays designed for skin or kidney stimulation [also at Callanwolde], while tubs were dispersed around the room for soaking one or more parts of the body.”

So, the Candlers’ bathroom was just an extension of the 1920-high-tech systems found throughout the house including central heating, a whole-house vacuuming system (have yet to figure that one out), and a speaker system in multiple rooms connected to the Aeolian organ (wiki).

So I say get over it! Instead of leaving guests to wonder, conjecture, and come up with potentially rude comments, let’s take the mystery out of this fixture and teach people something new! This bathroom was personal therapeutic spa, we should be jealous.

Go soak your hips.

Exciting images of the upstairs bathrooms at Callanwolde, featuring a corner tub, built-in cabinets, a rib-cage shower, a tiny separate shaving sink and screens which cover the central heat system.

Exciting images of the upstairs bathrooms at Callanwolde, featuring a corner tub, built-in cabinets, a rib-cage shower, a tiny separate shaving sink and screens which cover the central heat system.

the many incarnations of Underground Atlanta

It’s been a long time since I’ve posted here, but I’ve had this one in the works since this summer when serious talk began circulating about Underground Atlanta’s potential sale. 2 days ago Mayor Kasim Reed announced that sale to South Carolina developer T. Scott Smith “who plans to convert the struggling center into a mixed-use development with a grocery anchor [much-needed downtown] and apartment homes” towering above-ground. This is a significant departure from the tourist-centered plans that have governed Underground since the 1960s and it may be just what downtown needs but as with many big developments, the fate of our historic built environment is in the balance and it’s a big deal.

Us Atlantans, we all know Underground, it’s a place natives have been to a time or two in their youth but adult transplants have never and would never EVER be caught dead there. It’s the early ’90s all over again right? is it a theme park? a shopping mall?? Yes and no…

To be honest, besides an Unseen Underground walking tour a few years ago, the most time I’ve spent there was while I was in grad school, and that was mostly on the street above, so I took my camera one day for a quick walk-through. There’s a lot of history down there, let me tell you, and standing beyond the white glare of the shoe store, looking at the rebuilt curbs and sidewalks, well, honestly, you get a real feel for this crazy historic space. It may be a little Disney-fied but the “street underground” is a unique real-life urban planning phenomenon.


atlanta_georgia-the_commercial_centre-300x194good video version

As we probably all know by now, Atlanta owes its very existence to the railroad, and by the time of the Civil War it was the hub of commerce for the rest of Georgia and the South. Of course Sherman put a brief end to that in 1864 but the rail lines were soon back in business and by 1869 Atlanta was constructing the Georgia RR Freight Depot which still sits at the eastern end of Alabama Street. The freight depot sat to one side of what we today call “the gulch,” through which a slew of railroad tracks ran. The huge train shed seen in this image sits alongside Wall St. in the gulch and was catercorner to the freight depot whose now-gone front tower can barely be seen on the right.

The gulch, as you can imagine, was a traffic disaster. Horses and carriages, streetcars, pedestrians, trains, and ever-increasing automobiles all converged in this wide, largely unregulated throughway. By the 1910s the area had become so congested that the city built iron bridges over a few of the streets.

Beginning construction of the viaducts along Alabama St., view east from Peachtree with the freight depot at the end.

Beginning construction of the viaducts along Alabama St., view east from Peachtree with the freight depot at the end.

In the early 1920s, Atlanta architect Haralson Bleckley convinced the city to replace the haphazard iron bridges with a unified system of concrete bridges over all the streets in the area. The original grade of Wall Street, which ran alongside the train tracks of the gulch, pretty much disappeared while the low-lying blocks of Alabama Street were submerged with the buildings intact.

1886 Sanborne map of downtown Atlanta, gray shows the elevated roadways built in the 1920s, pink areas should orient you to the layout today.

1886 Sanborne map of downtown Atlanta, gray shows the elevated roadways built in the 1920s, pink areas should orient you to the layout today.

Consequently, the businesses that had been located at the original street level moved up to what was then the second floor and the new street level. Some of the old storefronts below were boarded or bricked up and became basement storage while others became speakeasies during Prohibition. Cofer quotes Blues legend Bessie Smith’s “Atlanta Blues”:

Down in Atlanta G.A.
Underneath the viaduct one day
Drinking corn and hollerin’ hoo-ray
Piano playin’ till the break of day

After Prohibition ended, the underground speakeasies were no longer needed and within a few years, the 12 acre, 5 block stretch of Alabama street was completely forgotten.

Underground ATL 1970s Postcard.jpgIn the 1960s, the original storefronts were rediscovered and many architectural features from a century earlier had survived intact including decorative brickwork, granite archways, ornate marble, cast-iron pilasters, hand-carved wooden posts, and gas street lamps. Two Georgia Tech graduates, Steven H. Fuller, Jr. and Jack R. Patterson, begin to plan a private development there to restore and reopen “the city beneath the city” as a retail and entertainment district (wiki). In 1969 the first Underground Atlanta opened. “Liquor by-the-drink” sales regulations kept Underground classy for a time but as alcohol sales relaxed Underground got seedier. The district was reincarnated as the mall we know today in 1989 and spruced up again for the 1996 Olympics.

The construction of MARTA in the late 1970s razed several historic buildings both above and below the viaducts, which must have been a motivating factor in getting Underground Atlanta listed as a National Register district in 1980. Despite redevelopments so far, much of the historic fabric remains. By my estimate, at least half of the storefronts on the 2+ block stretch of Lower Alabama Street date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The upper portions of many of those same buildings, however, have been dramatically altered or rebuilt.

Although very intriguing in its own right, the tourist-tied reincarnations of Underground Atlanta have never been lasting successes. On the brink of another redevelopment, there has been talk of “razing” Underground (Fuqua), although in later discussions, Mayor Reed seems cognizant of the significant history of the district. The other day he acknowledged Underground as “the place where Atlanta started” and, in an 11Alive interview several months back, he seemed to indicate that the historic environment of Underground was safe from destruction.

Mayor Reed is not developing Underground though and, like a good preservationist, I have to ask WHY is it NOT protected, this super significant piece of Atlanta’s history, preserved here by unique bit of urban planning that few others can claim?? I’m sure there’s an answer, follow the money.


– look here for great pictures of the viaducts in the mid-20th century
– from the Atlanta Preservation Center with a link to the NR form
– lengthy and captivating history by blogger Jim Cofer

Sandy Springs’ historic gem threatened

Not far from “downtown” Sandy Springs (that cluster of shopping centers where the recently formed city is working to create a town center) lie over 70 acres of private greenspace that are currently for sale and in the middle of the northern portion lies the exquisite, serene, Glenridge Hall.

Glenridge Hall, built by TK Glenn in 1929, is now for sale along with its surrounding acreage. This exquisite restored historic house has no protections.

Glenridge Hall, built by TK Glenn in 1929, is now for sale along with its surrounding acreage. This exquisite restored historic house has no protections.

I need not tell any metro-Atlantan that property at the intersection of 400 and Abernathy Rd is a prime real estate in the corporate world, in fact UPS and Newell Rubbermaid headquarters sit on former Glenn family (now Mayson) property adjacent to the acreage now for sale.

TK GLENN, the builder
Thomas Kearney (TK) Glenn was one of those bootstrap fellows like so many early Atlantans such as Asa Griggs Candler, Amos Rhodes, and Joel Hurt. From Vernon, Mississippi, he came to Atlanta in 1887 and before you knew it he had his fingers in half the pots in the city, from the nascent Atlanta Consolidated Street Railway Co (later Georgia Power) to aiding the development of Atlantic Steel, Grady Hospital, and Sun Trust Bank. (read more about him in relation to the Glenn Building on Marietta)

In 1915 TK Glenn purchased 400 acres for a farm and upon marrying his second wife, in 1927, built Glenridge Hall on the property, which was completed in 1929. It was an English Tudor Revival manor house for an English country estate, just north of Atlanta.

The Restoration
In the 1980s, Frances Glenn and Joey Mayson expressed their desire to restore Glenridge Hall for “preservation beyond our own lifetime and into perpetuity.” They were spurred by the sale of a huge portion (around 150 acres) of the property to developers, which would become office parks and Ga-400.

They enlisted the help of preservationists and the community of Sandy Springs rallied behind them. Glenridge Hall was officially listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982, and the restoration was completed to the trumpet call of local papers and earned accolades from The Georgia Trust.

Unfortunately Frances (granddaughter of TK Glenn) died of complications in childbirth in 1987. Joey Mayson continued to care for and restore the property as a memorial to her while he lived there with his daughter, Caroline. It is touching to read the correspondence and clippings of that era that are contained in the National Register file at the State Historic Preservation Office.

He fought hard to keep encroaching development at bay though in the end, offices towers for UPS, Kaiser Permanente, Rubbermaid and others rose on the eastern flank of the property. The house though, through Mr. Mayson’s efforts remained secluded in the midst of a thickly forested 37-acre parcel north of Abernathy Rd. As for it’s service to the public and the community, while the grandest ideals he and his wife shared in the 1980s were never fully realized (public access, and a tie-in to Marta for starters it sounds like), Glenridge Hall has served the community over the years, hosting balls, fundraisers and other charitable events at little or no cost to the charity.


But times change, and people come and go. Ideals are forgotten and unfortunately Mr. Mayson never had Glenridge Hall placed in that land trust he dreamed of when he saw the first office towers rising. Today the family, with the almost exclusive aid of their financial manager Mike Rabalais, are selling the remainder of the property, some 76 acres in total, including Glenridge Hall, and no protections are in place.

Would a corporation see the value in this pristine property? enough to stay the hand of execution (of forest and hall) and let the property continue to serve this world? It is possible, but unlikely in the booming bustling office-park road-happy Atlanta.

The people of Sandy Springs should be raising a ruckus!
but only a handful seem to be aware of it at all.

The preservation of this beautiful property along with some land conservation could be an exceptional boon to the city. There are 76 acres at stake! Surely there is room in there for everyone to be happy.

the Crypt of Civilization

At the heart of the beautiful historic Oglethrope University campus lies a a crypt, situated on the granite bedrock under Hearst Hall, in a former swimming pool covered with a 7-foot thick stone roof.

I was taking the old roads back from Duluth the other day when I stopped there for the first time. There was a summer camp raging in Hearst Hall, teens ran back and forth in the hallways working on projects and when I asked a staffer pointed me to the basement, “The crypt of what? well, there IS a vault down there…” Sure enough, wedged between two adult ESL classes in progress on this claustrophobic hallway was a shiny spaceage door. Well, it looked as much like a door as a door to a vault does and that’s exactly what it is. “Crypt” is hardly the right word, reliquary or vault are more accurate.

the Crypt of Civilization

In the late 1930s Dr. Thornwall Jacobs lead the project to create a permanant time capsule of what life was like on earth at the time. (The Great Depression must’ve really been getting to him). Because the first known date in recorded history, 4241 B.C., was 6177 years previous, Jacobs suggested that the Crypt be sealed until another 6177 years had passed, thus setting the date for the Crypt’s reopening in the year 8113.

Representing human civilization on the eve of World War II are microfilm of documents and images, artifacts such as seed samples, dental floss, the contents of a woman’s purse, tailored clothing on mannequins, and a bottle of Budweiser most of which are archival sealed in stainless steel receptacles with inert gas. The first item upon entering the crypt, however, is a machine to teach the English language should it be, in 6177 years, a forgotten tongue. As the microfilm contains more than 800 works of literature including the Bible and the Iliad, this machine seems pretty indispensable. Some of the last items placed in the Crypt of Civilization were steel plates of the Atlanta Journal newspaper reporting on World War II. (Wiki)

As historic preservation goes this thing is really in for the long haul. What will have become of Hearst Hall, of Oglethorpe, of Atlanta and the United States by the time someone opens this thing??!

read more: at Oglethorpe University
and Wikipedia of course and